Teaching and learning at Springfield Central State School is developed around the Explicit Instruction model. Archer and Hughes (2011) describe Explicit Instruction as ‘a structured, systematic, and effective methodology for teaching academic skills. It is called explicit because it is an unambiguous and direct approach to teaching that includes both instructional design and delivery procedures.’
Explicit Instruction at Springfield Central State School consists of 5 key components: Warm Up, I Do, We Do, You Do, Plough Back.
(Explicit Instruction: Effective and Efficient Teaching by Anita L. Archer and Charles A. Hughes.Copyright 2011 by The Guilford Press. All rights reserved.)
A warm up is a teacher directed activity which essentially ‘warms up’ a student’s brain and prepares them for the lesson. These activities are designed to be fast paced responses to review and revise previously taught content whilst moving this knowledge from a student’s short term to long term memory. Teachers at Springfield Central State School are consistently monitoring student participation and engagement, whilst keeping students accountable for their learning.
Teachers are explicitly teaching a new skill or concept. They begin by explaining the intent of the lesson and why the concept is being taught. Students are expected to be 100% focused on the teacher.
We Do is a highly collaborative part of the lesson where the teacher supports students with guided practice of the new concept or skill. The teacher is constantly giving feedback, checking for understanding and clarifying any misconceptions the students have. They gradually withdraw their support as they move students towards independent practice and mastery of the concept. At this stage, students are actively participating, asking and answering questions, peer modelling and self-monitoring to demonstrate their understanding.
Students have the opportunity to practise the new skill or concept. The teacher sets focused, independent work and gives students the opportunity to apply what they’ve learnt in I Do and practised in We Do. Students monitor their own understanding through the traffic light sticker on their desks. The teacher is actively monitoring student progress, differentiating tasks when needed, enforcing expectations and giving individual/group/whole class feedback.
At the end of the lesson, the teacher may provide time to review the key skill of the lesson, reflect on lesson intent and celebrate successes. Students are encouraged to review and reflect on what they’ve learnt, whilst being accountable for their learning.